They are made of silicon chips. AMD and Intel processors are made of instruction sets that define the unique quality of the processor. Instruction Set Architecture of these desktop and Laptop CPUs will same as only Instruction set will be added in the latest generation of processor.
In this article, I am not going to differentiate processors based on clock speed and architecture(haswell, broadwell, etc). Clock speed and Architecture is important, but you will witness a new way of classification of processors. Processors consist of Instruction sets like SSE, MMX, SSE2 , etc. Let’s learn in a next paragraph how these instruction are so much important when selecting a processors for your Computers.
MMX (MultiMedia eXtensions)
This instruction is a SIMD(Single Input Multiple Data) instruction set developed by intel to support multimedia like audio and video.But this trademark also used by AMD.
3DNow! is an extension to the x86 instruction set developed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). It was enabled to perform vector processing, which aslo improved graphic intensive applications. It was developing in the era where 3D graphics were becoming mainstream in PC multimedia and gaming software. But this instruction set was available until AMD phenom processors and discontinued for future AMD processors.
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions)
Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) is a SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMD’s 3DNow!. It was supporting floating point operations, which were having wider application than MMX. SSE was subsequently expanded by Intel to SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, and SSE4. So there was an incremental upgrade in every previous instruction.
SSE4 (Streaming SIMD Extensions 4) is a CPU instruction set used in the Intel Core microarchitecture and AMD K10. The SSE4A instruction group was introduced in AMD’s Barcelona microarchitecture. These instructions were not available in Intel processors.
x86-64 or EM64T or AMD64
It is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set. This instruction supports large amount of virtual memory as 264 bytes of memory, which allows larger amount of memory to store the programs.
VT-X or AMD-V
In computing, x86 virtualization refers to hardware virtualization for the x86 architecture. It allows multiple operating systems to simultaneously share x86 processor resources in a safe and efficient manner. In 2006, both Intel (VT-x) and AMD (AMD-V) introduced limited hardware virtualization support that allowed for simpler virtualization software but offered very little speed benefits.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard. Hardware encryption techniques includes clock cycles of CPU to unlock it. This instruction set requires processor with maximum clock frequency. processors with 3 GHz and above will be best for data compression.
FMA3(Fused Multipy Add)
FMA3 is supported in AMD processors starting with the Piledriver architecture and Intel starting with Haswell processors and Broadwell processors since 2014. This instruction is used to fused multiply Add operations. This help to get better efficiency in doing some arithmetical operations.
AVX (Advanced Vector eXtensions)
Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) are extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008 and first supported by Intel with the Sandy Bridge processor shipping in Q1 2011 and later on by AMD with the Bulldozer processor shipping in Q3 2011. It was developed to support scientific calculations and increase parallelism.
The extended Operations instruction set announced by AMD on May 1, 2009, is an extension to the 128-bit SSE core instructions in the x86 and AMD64 instruction set for the Bulldozer processor core.
TSX (Transactional Synchronization eXtensions)
Transactional Synchronization Extensions (TSX) is an extension to the x86 instruction set architecture (ISA) that adds hardware transactional memory support, speeding up execution of multi-threaded software.
These above mentioned instruction set extensions are useful to get more juice out of your processor. It forms the base of the modern processors. Day-by-Day, as the usage of the computer will increase and more demanding applications, more there will be need to invent more instruction sets. Lets see the classification of the processors below:-
|MMX, SSE, SSE1, SSE2, SSE3, 3D Now! ,VT-X or AMD-V, SSSE3, x86-64 or EM64T||MMX,SSE, SSE1 ,SSE2 ,SSE3 ,SSSE3 ,3D Now!, VT-X or AMD-V, AVX, XOP, x86-64 or EM64T||MMX ,SSE, SSE1, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, 3D Now!, VT-X or AMD-V, FMA3, TSX, x86-64 or EM64T|